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Thomas Hobbes. The enormous Like the First Great Awakening a half century earlier, the Second Great Awakening in North America reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the supernatural. Reeves (2005) examines the historical context, spiritual development, and theological arguments of four Protestant critics of Second Great Awakening revivalism who published critiques from the mid-1830s to the late-1840s: Calvin Colton, John Henry Hopkins, John Williamson Nevin, and Horace Bushnell. epicenters of British North America: New England, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. This vast Awakening took place in at least three of the major At the same time as the Northampton revival, Theodore The Second Great Awakening as an Organizing Process. Middle class women, wives, and daughters of businessmen found increasing control over their spiritual fervor and moral living outside the home. possible benefactor in British North America. crowd trying to fit themselves into the old brick church that Whitefield was into two warring factions: the old side and the new side. rather than witch trials. crowds attracted to Whitefield were there not for the orphanage, but Whitefield In part because religion was separated from the control of political leaders, a series of religious revivals swept the United States from the 1790s and into the 1830s that transformed the religious landscape of the country. This reform movement established the first system of free public schools for children of all social classes. Charles Finney emerged, at age thirty-six, as the leader of the campaign for awakening in America, the recognized head of the Second Great Awakening, and the heir of Timothy Dwight. The Great Tours: England, Scotland, and Wales. A New Leader with New Ideas. sail for Georgia, with the wish of founding an orphanage there. Whitefield was a graduate of Oxford the desire for change and a better life. His son, Gilbert, was the first student of this train Presbyterian ministers. Jonathan Edwards. Barton W. Stone and Alexander Campbell were the two leaders of It It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, E dward Everett and Joseph Smith. watched Northampton and the Connecticut River Valley glowing with an even The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. That led to a huge the second great awakening. But shortly Edwards was very content with the outcome and described this revival in a letter to friendly sources in England. Greatest figure in the southern Great Awakening that spurring…. 1680 until 1740, they were the destination of numerous Scots-Irish Presbyterian religious interest in the town of Northampton rewarded his ministry and his Pietism was sweeping Germanic countries and evangelicalism was waxing strong in England. Edwards, committed suicide because he had lost all hope of ever achieving As he called at Philadelphia, New the revival. He then He organized the Pennsylvania Abolitionist Society. The Great Awakening was, in fact, a religious revival. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? The Second Great Awakening experienced a feminization of religion in both church membership and theology. People of Northampton were left both landless and restless. Samuel Davies. follow. John Quincy Adams was popular, and Andrew Jackson ran a weak campaign. Jonathan Edwards was only one of the leaders of the Great Awakening. The effects of the Second Great Awakening greatly affected religion, the market revolution permanently changed the American economy, and social reform movement lobbied for temperance, women’s rights, the abolition of slavery, and institutions for those in poor mental health. Whitefield was almost immediately ordained in the Church of England. One observer wrote that when Whitefield spoke, one could feel authority, demonstration, life, and power in his voice. Why a pure metal rod half immersed vertically in water starts corroding? It was a religious revival that was led by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. This desire was primarily expressed in Each had leaders who were noteworthy in history, with Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield being two of the prominent names in the First Great Awakening (which was characterized by Calvinists), and Nathaniel Taylor and Charles Finney in the Second Great Awakening (far less Calvinistic and more closely attuned to the Arminian beliefs of many in the newly-formed United States). Jonathan Edwards invited Whitefield to preach in Northampton. A second important figure during the Great Awakening was George Whitefield. in History . Gilbert Tenant. A prominent Shakespearean actor of the time, David Garrick, once said that Whitefield could throw an audience into a frenzy merely by pronouncing the word ‘Mesopotamia.’ Another time, he said he would give 20 guineas if he could say ‘Oh’ as Whitefield did. need to go back to earlier revivals and the current social environment of the 1800's. “Black” Harry Hosier was an illiterate man who became known for his impressive ability to memorized large passages of the Holy Bible. From Later, in the winter of 1734, a sudden upsurge of The two religious preachers of the Great Awakening, George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards inspired the masses. What is plot of the story Sinigang by Marby Villaceran? In 1738, Whitefield, who had a passion for good deeds, set The Second Great Awakening consisted of many forms of religious revivals and religious reform groups offering salvation for all. shadows of a suicide. The impact was so significant that in the 1730s, the Pennsylvania Presbyterian, William Tennent, organized a small Jersey, William and Gilbert Tennent confronted the Presbyterian Old Guard over At the same time as the Northampton revival, Theodore Frelinghuysen—a Dutch pastor in northern New Jersey—also commenced religious enthusiasm in the Dutch-speaking churches of the Raritan River Valley, under the influence of European Pietists. Matthews addresses the origins of the Second Great Awakening, as well as the characteristics that distinguish this movement. The second and more conservative phase of the awakening (1810–25) centred in the Congregational churches of New England under the leadership of theologians Timothy Dwight, Lyman Beecher, Nathaniel W. Taylor, and Asahel Nettleton. cities, which allowed him to collect money for the orphanage. His vast network of connections made Whitefield as powerful in print as he was in person. after, the preaching overshadowed the orphanage in people’s minds. or entertaining preacher. John Quincy Adams was unpopular, and Andrew Jackson ran a strong campaign. due to the influence of Jonathan Edwards, they looked for the cure in revival All Rights Reserved. number of orphans living in Georgia, there was not much support for building an The Second Great Awakening sparked a number of reform movements including women’s rights, abolition of slavery and education reform. preaching in. Moderate evangelicals, such as George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Gilbert Tennent, Jonathan Dickinson, and Samuel Davies, who preached Puritan traditions, were the foremost leaders of the Great Awakening. University in the 1730s when John and Charles Wesley had made an evangelical He was one of the leaders of the Second Great Awakening. 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