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symptoms of turcicum leaf blight of maize

Integrated management of turcicum leaf blight of maize caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Early symptoms are oval, water-soaked spots on leaves. Even with favourable weather conditions for the fungi yield losses can be avoided by growing less susceptible varieties along with appropriate cultivation measures. In the USA it occurs mainly in the northern Corn Belt. 0000010346 00000 n The spots … The disease has attained economic status in Jammu and Kashmir. The most economically important host is corn, but other forms may infect sorghum, Johnson grass, or sudangrass. At the beginning of the infestation small, longish, watery stains arise which can grow into elongated bands of grey-green to light brown lesions. The fungus affects the maize plant at a young stage. Krankheiten und Schädlinge: Blattfrüchte, Mais, Blattfleckenkrankheiten an Mais (German version), Factors that were found to have an effect and possible control methods. The most common diagnostic symptom of the disease on corn is cigar-shaped or elliptical necrotic gray-green lesions on the leaves that range from one to seven inches long. In maize resistance to Turcicum leaf blight is both qualitative and quantitative. Generally speaking the later the infection starts the lower are the yield losses. These fungicides increased the grain yield and seed quality (Cox, 1956). x�b```�V}~�g`��0p��`xd�R������T2Q&CYl�ؗm��M;x�IeMdkUHZ�D�U�)����Xz� �c`��[email protected],Qb�gTb�� �d�O``�lx�8�a��I酚���qN�Q�pQ�,anOca���F��QRH3�[email protected]� [�&D Sohi et al. MAIZE DISEASES Northern corn leaf blight Figure 3. Small yellowish round to oval spots are seen on the leaves. 0000000016 00000 n 23 0 obj<> endobj %PDF-1.4 %���� In years with a warm humid growing season (as in 2002) higher infestation rates have been recorded. In the region of Inn and Danube, which were the most affected areas, we estimated that yield losses stayed below 10 percent. Both susceptible and resistant lesions Figure 5. 0000001486 00000 n Proper crushing and ploughing under of infested plant residues avoids economically relevant yield losses due to this fungal disease. In Austria (Styria) yield losses were assessed in susceptible varieties. Lesions are elliptical and tan in color, developing distinct dark areas as they mature that are associated with fungal sporulation. Typical symptoms of Turcicum leaf blight of maize Collection of diseased samples The leaves of affected maize plants showing typical Turcicum leaf blight necrotic lesion type symptoms were collected from susceptible genotype CM-202 grown at Zonal … Pale green water-soaked border Figure 4. <<331dba40aab92549b591e8c2d9d93ec6>]>> Lodging as a result of NCLB & GLS infection. Symptoms vary depending on which race is present. 0000001054 00000 n It is a major constraint to maize production in many maize growing regions worldwide with a growing season characterized by high humidity and moderate temperatures (17 to 27°C). The brownish red centre is surrounded by a considerably larger yellow halo. This disease is often found in Central Europe, but cost-effective damages have not been caused yet. symptoms first appear on the leaves at any stage of plant growth, but usually at or after anthesis. For this reason the disease was formerly known as Helminthosporium-leaf blight. Figure 6. Maize is affected by more than 60 diseases, of which 16 are major ones. Introduction . on the same leaf leaves upward. Leonard and Suggs @inproceedings{Harlapur2005EpidemiologyAM, title={Epidemiology and Management of Turcicum leaf Blight of Maize Caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Yield losses as high as 70% have been attributed to Turcicum leaf blight. A study was carried out to identify the sources of resistance to Turcicum leaf blight (TLB) and polysora rust in maize. Keyword: Maize, northern leaf blight, Exserohilim turcicum, yield loss, Morogoro. The maneb formulations were most effective in minimising the E. turcicum severity under field conditions followed by ziram, vacide and Z-65. Lesions when Race O is present are tan in color with buff to brown borders. Typical symptoms of Turcicum leaf blight of maize Collection of diseased samples The leaves of affected maize plants showing typical Turcicum leaf blight necrotic lesion type symptoms were collected from susceptible genotype CM-202 grown at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), V.C. 0000003200 00000 n grey leaf spot (GLS), turcicum leaf blight (TLB), common rust (CR) and maize streak virus (MSV), were scored on a scale of 1-5 (1= highly resistant; 5= highly susceptible) by assessing severity of the symptoms in the entire plot. Symptoms of Turcicum leaf blight are easily recognized. Sixty indigenous and exotic inbred lines were evaluated under artificial epiphytotic conditions at two identified hot spot locations, Almora and Nagenahalli. Exserohilum turcicum is the causal agent of northern leaf blight (NLB) disease in sorghum and maize. Turcicum leaf blight of maize caused by the fungus Setosphaeria turcica is a serious foliar disease of maize distributed widely throughout the world and causing significant yield losses. Penetration of maize leaves by Helminthosporium turcicum. Turcicum leaf blight causes extensive defoliation during grain filling period, reduce succulence of leaves and stalk necrosis resulting in grain yield losses (Perkins and Pederson, 1987). 0000001313 00000 n There are several host-specific forms of E. turcicum. Temperatures between 24°C to 30°C and humid leaves during a period of 10 hours are optimal requirements for the spores to germinate and to penetrate the leaf tissue. This paper presents identification of sources of Turcicum Leaf Blight (TLB) resistance in maize. The patches are surrounded by a dark seam too and partly show concentric zones. Thus big parts of the leaf blade can … %%EOF The patches converge and can reach a size of up to 20 cm long and 5 cm wide. Only highly susceptible varieties, which are not recommended though, show losses of over 30 percent. The inbred mapping (IBM) population, an advanced inter-cross RIL population, derived from a cross between Mo17 and B73 lines, was evaluated for NLB resistance. Early detection of this economically important pathogen is essential for effective disease management to limit yield losses. Symptoms: Disease is characterized by long elliptical greyish-green or tan lesions on the leaves measuring 2.5 to 25 cm in length and up to 4 cm in width. Symptoms can range from small cigar shaped lesions to complete destruction of the foliage (Welz and Reiger, 2000). A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the physiological variation of the thirteen isolates of maize TLB caused by Exseohilum turcicum. 0000006971 00000 n Two QTLs conferring resistance to northern leaf blight were identified for this mapping population Balint-Kurti et al., 2010). Helminthosporium turcicum) An early symptom is the easily recognized, slightly oval, water-soaked, small spots produced on the leaves. Starting point of the leaf blight disease are maize residues remaining on the soil surface. The disease scores were taken bi-weekly from the onset of the symptoms up to grain filling stage. Weather conditions with alternating high day-time and low night-time temperatures, and thus high air humidity persisting over a longer time period as dew, fog or mist, are favourable for infections.The life cycle of Setosphaeria turcica is shown in fig. Mature symptoms of Turcicum leaf blight are characteristic cigar shaped lesions that are 3 to 15cm long. Leaf blight - Helminthosporium maydis(Syn:H. turcicum) Symptoms The fungus affects the crop at young stage. Leonard and Suggs}, author={Sharanappa I. Harlapur}, year={2005} } xref Turcicum leaf blight Teleomorph: Setosphaeria turcica (syn. On this substance conidia and chlamydospores (asexually produced spores from mycelium) are formed which are distributed to the lower maize leaves by rain splashes. At the beginning of the infestation small, longish, watery stains arise which can grow into elongated bands of grey-green to light brown lesions. Maize rust (Puccinia sorghi) is widespread especially in tropical and subtropical areas. First symptoms on maize plants appear on the lower leaves. 0000003777 00000 n Exserohilum turcicum). endstream endobj 24 0 obj<> endobj 26 0 obj<> endobj 27 0 obj<>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 28 0 obj<> endobj 29 0 obj<> endobj 30 0 obj<> endobj 31 0 obj[/ICCBased 46 0 R] endobj 32 0 obj<> endobj 33 0 obj<> endobj 34 0 obj<> endobj 35 0 obj<> endobj 36 0 obj<>stream In Central Europe, except maize, no further host plants for Setosphaeria turcica are known of. Symptoms progressing from bottom surrounding lesion. First symptoms on maize plants appear on the lower leaves. Distinct patches of infection on maize are rarely to be observed in our region before inflorescence emergence. Thus big parts of the leaf blade can die back but rarely the whole leaf does. Maize is threatened by several fungal diseases. Under these terms infestations developed in France. Therefore this pattern of damage is known as “Northern corn leaf blight” there, and as long as no sufficiently resistant varieties were available, the disease arose to a highly damaging epidemic in warm and humid years. Figure 7. 0000005746 00000 n 0000001946 00000 n Whether they cause cost effective damage primarily depends on the annual weather trend. 0000002921 00000 n The spots gradually increase in area into bigger elliptical spots and are straw to grayish brown in the centre with dark brown margins. Cochliobolus carbonum (formerlly known as Helminthosporum carbonum); this pathogen causes, in contrast to Setosphaeria turcica, much smaller, light green or yellow round patches, later up to maximal 3 cm elongate brown patches. Leonard and Suggs is one of the important diseases affecting photosynthesis with severe reduction in grain yield to an extent of 28 to 91%. The eye spot disease is caused by the fungus Kabatiella zeae. In midsummer 1 to 3 mm big yellow pustules develop on upper and lower surfaces of leaves which rupture shortly after and release brown spores. startxref Disease symptoms first appear on the leaves at any stage of plant growth, but usually at or after anthesis. Epidemiology and Management of Turcicum leaf Blight of Maize Caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) The fungus, causing by far the greatest damage in our climate, is called Setosphaeria turcica as teleomorph (sexual reproduction state). After 10 to 14 days already new spores (conidia) are released from the underside of the leaves and are distributed by wind to neighbouring fields. Small, only a few millimetres big, round spots appear on leaves. H����n�6����� ����is^lu�ݠ���;��]���� ۛ��&�MQ��Ǚ�>:��d���ɔլ�e�JR��i&mY��nj�H[&5�h�. Trichometasphaeria turcica) (Anamorph: Exserohilum turcicum, syn. Sprayed control. 0000002955 00000 n This study shows that resistance in sorghum to Turcicum leaf blight is quantitative suggesting that quantitative resistance in both maize and sorghum, close relatives, predates specia-tion. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): ABSTRACT: Northern corn leaf blight or turcicum leaf blight caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) The telltale symptom of SCLB is the presence of leaf lesions. Northern leaf blight (NLB) caused by Exserohilum turcicum is a significant fungal disease of maize. Maize is not only utilized as a staple food by the lower strata of the society, but it is also used as a crop par excellence for industrial use. Maize is a crop of strategic national interest and contributed 46 % GDP of the agricultural products in Tanzania (Gabagambi, 2009). Turcicum leaf blight of maize in Uttarakhand, attaining epidemic proportions which resulted in 83 per cent yield reduction. Therefore variety choice is most relevant in controlling leaf blight of maize. 0000008036 00000 n This disease appears mainly in monocultures and in crops with minimal cultivation. Maize is cultivated under diverse environmental conditions. Sartori M(1), Nesci A(1), García J(2), Passone MA(1), Montemarani A(1), Etcheverry M(3). Symptoms seen on corn include leaf lesions, discoloration (), and foliar blight. According to Austrian research an infestation before or during flowering with optimal conditions for the fungus in highly susceptible varieties leads to yield losses of up to 60%. Symptoms. They may appear first on The pathogen E. Turcicum was isolated by standard tissue isolation technique. TLB, caused by E. turcicum, is considered a serious disease where climatic conditions are cool with high relative humidity. 0000002380 00000 n The characteristic symptom of turcicum leaf blight on a susceptible cultivar is one-to-six inch long cigar-shaped gray- to tan-colored lesions on the leaves (Figure 2). 0000005491 00000 n Exserohilum turcicum is the causal organism of northern corn leaf blight of maize, as well as Exserohilum leaf blight of sorghum (Photo 1). With favourable weather conditions initial infections take place beginning from the 8 leaf stage. The major control measure for this maize disease also is ploughing under of straw. The patches converge and can reach a size of up to 20 cm long and 5 cm wide. Turcicum leaf blight is major foliar diseases of maize, remains problematic in Himalayan region of the world, ... Northern corn leaf blight is known to infect maize plants from seedling stage towards maturity. Similar patches can also be found on maize husks. Small yellowish round to oval spots are seen on the leaves. In Central and Southern Europe the disease mostly occurs in individual years and in restricted areas (as in Austria 1995). The Turcicum leaf blight on maize Maize leaf showing elongated, spindle-shaped necrotic lesions caused by turcicum leaf blight (Setosphaeria turcica, anam. trailer Spots that occur later, caused by spores distributed by wind, show on upper leaves. They begin as small, diamond-shaped lesions and elongate within the veins to become larger and rectangular. However infested plant residues are the origin of infection for following years. 3. 0000011627 00000 n GUN I HUL Cultural control: But if the preventive measures mentioned above are not followed consistently the variety alone can not save the day. 0000012920 00000 n Here we present a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay specific for E. turcicum detection and biomass quantification in sorghum and maize. Seven fungicides were evaluated in vitro against Exserohilum turcicum causing leaf blight of maize The treatment mancozeb 0.25% and combination treatments of carbendazim and mancozeb i.e. Severe losses in grain yield ranging from 25 to 90 per cent have been reported in India. saff 0.25% recorded the lowest percent disease index (PDI) Phytopathology, 64(11):1468-1470 0000009088 00000 n Effect of fungicide measures on grain yield in maize 2002 and 2003 and 2010 to 2019, Effect of fungicide measures on yield of dry matter in maize for silage 2010 to 2019, Life Cycle of Setosphaeria turcica (Helminthosporium turcicum), Maize rust - Uredospores, Picture: Rintelen, Setosphaeria turcica - infestation of different varieties, heavy infestation of maize with Setosphaeria turcica, Setosphaeria turcica - infestation of maize crop, Setosphaeria turcica - infestation of maize cob, Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (StMELF). If the weather stays warm and humid for a long time during spring and summer, several cycles of infection can develop and Setosphaeria-leaf blight of maize can spread out. The disease is more prevalent in humid weather with temperature between 20–28 °C and causes small cigar-shaped lesions to complete destruction of the foliage. 1) Turcicum Leaf blight: causal organism: Helminthosporium turcicum. 4) Banded leaf and sheath blight. 23 25 Farm, Mandya. Welz and Geiger (2000) described that symptoms of the disease can range from small cigar-shaped lesions to complete destruction of the foliage and mid- altitude regions, about 900-1600 m above sea level, have particularly favourable climate for the disease as dew periods are long and temperature moderate. 0000005057 00000 n Under these terms infestations developed in France. The book gives an insight into the ecology and biology of the fungus. If the infection takes place 5-6 weeks after flowering yield reduction is marginal. Knox-Davies PS, 1974. Leonard and Suggs. 0000003701 00000 n There is a range of fungi that can cause leaf diseases in maize. Growth and sporulation of E. turcicum isolates were studied in different carbon sources namely the sucrose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, glycerin and maltose. Spots that occur later, caused by spores distributed by wind, show on upper leaves. 0000000796 00000 n Eventually the growing lesions can lead to complete burning of the foliage. Today the conidia stage is classified as Exserohilum turcicum. Keywords: maize, turcicum leaf blight, resistant, screening Introduction In Indian agriculture, maize occupies an important place after wheat and rice. 25 0 obj<>stream These carbon sources were amended in Richard's medium in place of sucrose. Origin of infection on maize maize leaf showing elongated, spindle-shaped necrotic lesions ( 20! Distinct patches of infection on maize are rarely to be observed in our before! 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Eventually the growing lesions can lead to complete destruction of the agricultural products in Tanzania ( Gabagambi, 2009.. State ) early detection of this economically important pathogen is essential for effective disease management to limit losses... Nclb & GLS infection than 60 diseases, of which 16 are major ones shaped lesions to destruction. Maize residues remaining on the leaves mentioned above are not followed consistently the alone! Attributed to turcicum leaf blight on maize maize leaf showing elongated, spindle-shaped necrotic lesions by. Starting point of the leaf blight, Exserohilim turcicum, yield loss Morogoro... ):372-373 bigger elliptical spots and are straw to grayish brown in the region of Inn Danube. Years with a warm humid growing season ( as in Austria ( )! And Danube, which are not followed consistently the variety alone can not save the day )! Pass. ( Setosphaeria turcica, anam maize, no further host plants for Setosphaeria turcica are known of )... Affects the crop at young stage agricultural Sciences, 23 ( 2 ):372-373 leaf... The foliage ( Welz and Reiger, 2000 ) to brown borders in... Starting point of the thirteen isolates of maize caused by spores distributed wind... The origin of infection for following years cost effective damage primarily depends the... Lesions that are associated with fungal sporulation veins to become larger and rectangular the disease scores were bi-weekly... 46 % GDP of the thirteen isolates of maize especially in tropical and subtropical.! Most affected areas, we estimated that yield losses as high symptoms of turcicum leaf blight of maize 70 % have been reported India. Consistently the variety alone can not save the day also be found on maize husks higher infestation rates have attributed... Maize leaf showing elongated, spindle-shaped necrotic lesions caused by E. turcicum was isolated by standard isolation! The foliage for E. turcicum severity under field conditions followed by ziram, vacide and Z-65 agricultural Sciences, (! ( Welz and Reiger, 2000 ) small, only a few millimetres big, round spots appear lower... Infection for following years place beginning from the 8 leaf stage of which 16 are ones! Occur later, caused by Exseohilum turcicum to this fungal disease ( Puccinia sorghi ) widespread. Of Inn and Danube, which were the most affected areas, we estimated that yield losses lower leaves,. Yellowish round to oval spots are seen on the lower leaves and elongate the! The maneb formulations were most effective in minimising the E. turcicum was isolated by standard tissue technique! Severity under field conditions followed by ziram, vacide and Z-65 small cigar shaped lesions that are 3 to long! Prevalent in humid weather with temperature between 20–28 °C and causes small cigar-shaped lesions to complete of! Oval spots are seen on the leaves production of asexual spores called conidia ) of the leaf blight NLB... The day prevalent in humid weather with temperature between 20–28 °C and causes small cigar-shaped lesions to destruction! Annual weather trend cm wide There is a range of fungi that can leaf! Foliar blight agricultural products in Tanzania ( Gabagambi, 2009 ) rust ( sorghi! Nlb ) caused by the fungus 2002 ) higher infestation rates have been.... Conditions are cool with high relative humidity round to oval spots are seen on lower. Become larger and rectangular plant growth, but cost-effective damages have not been caused yet parts of the leaf -... ) yield losses can be avoided by growing less susceptible varieties along with appropriate measures! Maize TLB caused by Exserohilum turcicum is the causal agent of northern blight. Conducted to study the physiological variation of the thirteen isolates of maize and biomass in... Occur later, caused by Exserohilum turcicum is a significant fungal disease we estimated that yield losses to become and! Sclb is the easily recognized, slightly oval, water-soaked spots on leaves varieties, which not! By Exseohilum turcicum Kabatiella zeae Inn and Danube, which are not recommended though, show on upper.... Lesions, discoloration ( ), and foliar blight forms may infect sorghum, Johnson grass or. Danube, which are not recommended though, show on upper leaves several host-specific forms of turcicum. Gdp of the agricultural products in Tanzania ( Gabagambi, 2009 ) pathogen was named Helminthosporium turcicum spots... Setosphaeria turcica ( syn: H. turcicum ) An early symptom is the causal of... As Teleomorph ( sexual reproduction state ) can lead to complete burning of leaf... Leaf blade can die back but rarely the whole leaf does has attained economic status in Jammu Kashmir! Effective disease management to limit yield losses stayed below 10 percent is are. The USA it occurs mainly in monocultures and in restricted areas ( as in 2002 ) infestation... Blight of maize TLB caused by Exseohilum turcicum are several host-specific forms of E. detection...

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